Procedures for Resistant Plantar Fasciitis
Non-surgical treatment for Resistant Plantar Fasciitis
Procedures for Resistant Plantar Fasciitis
Non-surgical Treatments for Plantar Fasciitis
The non-surgical interventions and procedures as the second line of treatment if conservative treatments and ultrasound guided corticosteroid injections fail to cure your plantar fasciitis. These are usually considered after 2-3 months of conservative treatment with little improvement of plantar fasciitis symptoms.
Non-surgical Treatments for Plantar Fasciitis
We provide the non-surgical interventions and procedures as the second line of treatment if conservative treatments and ultrasound guided corticosteroid injections fail to cure your plantar fasciitis. These are usually considered after 2-3 months of conservative treatment with little improvement of plantar fasciitis symptoms. Physicians highly recommend these procedures over surgery because:
- These interventions are associated with minimal risk of adverse effects as compared to surgery
- Post-procedure rehabilitation/ recovery period is generally short and pain-free
- At least 80% of patients experience complete resolution of symptoms (thus not requiring surgical intervention)
Tired of all those stretching and icing exercises?
The non-surgical treatments for resistant Plantar Fasciitis that we recommend and perform are:
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT)
If conservative measures are unsuccessful at eliminating plantar fasciitis pain, Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) is considered an excellent next step. We use a type of ESWT called Extracorporeal Pulse Activation Technology or EPAT®). We provide it as a simple and excellent treatment of plantar fasciitis. Recently, EPAT has also been shown to be very effective when used in early plantar fasciitis.
Extracorporeal Pulse Activation Technology uses high frequency sound waves that are directed at the most tender part of the heel to promote healing. EPAT offers fast recovery without the necessity of reduced weight bearing or immobilization. The short recovery time allows the patients to resume their daily living activities earlier.
It is estimated that extracorporeal shock wave therapy is effective in resolving greater than 70% of cases of chronic plantar fasciitis pain. Recent studies have shown that patients with heel spurs, edema or high pain scores respond better to EPAT.
The exact therapeutic mechanism of shock wave therapy still remains a topic of speculation despite extensive research. It is thought that sound waves damage tissues to induce microtrauma, which stimulates the healing process by attracting blood vessels and nutrients to the plantar fascia. These sound waves also inhibit pain receptors to achieve pain relief and persistent healing of chronic processes.
The Procedure. Our protocol for EPAT is a course of 3 treatments, each 2 weeks apart. The procedure is generally well tolerated when performed by trained technicians with minimal discomfort.
Side effects are rare especially when procedure is performed in expert hands. Side effects may include: bruising, post-procedure inflammation, discomfort, pain, swelling and tenderness (all of which usually resolve spontaneously.) Contraindications to extracorporeal shockwave therapy include: a positive history of hemophilia or other coagulopathies; malignancy; and open bone growth plates (physes.)
Relief: Many patients have pain relief immediately after EPAT. EPAT has a cumulative effect so repeating the procedure can be beneficial. The full effect of the course of 3 treatments may take up to 6 weeks after the last treatment.
Ultrasound Guided Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA)
The mechanism of Plantar Fasciitis pain is unclear. In some cases the cause of ongoing Plantar Fasciitis pain is that a sensory nerve to the heel (specifically a branch of the Inferior Calcaneal Nerve is pinched between the heel and the overlying muscles due to the thickened plantar fascia. These results in a nerve entrapment syndrome called Baxter’s Entrapment. In these cases, permanently numbing the nerves’ pain sensation by using ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation provides excellent long-term pain relief without any need for surgery.
Ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation is a sophisticated, minimally invasive procedure that is associated with high patient satisfaction scores and long term pain relief for plantar fasciitis, especially for those whose Plantar Fasciitis pain is due to Baxter’s Entrapment. The ultrasound and nerve stimulator guidance significantly improves the accuracy and precision of the procedure.
It is a procedure that uses high frequency sound waves to heat the sensory nerve that is affected in Baxter’s Entrapment to 90 degrees Celsius. At this temperature the heat breaks down proteins preventing the nerve fibers from transmitting pain. The nerve is destroyed, and the pain from that area is not transmitted any further. In addition, radiofrequency ablation may cause the creation of new blood vessels speeding up the healing process. The procedure is minimally invasive and at our center these procedures are performed under local anesthetic with nerve stimulator and ultrasound guidance to ensure correct positioning. Most patients experience remarkable improvement in symptoms within a week after the procedure. The procedure has a therapeutic efficacy of over 80%. (The effects of the therapy may be lower in morbidly obese patients or patients with long complex histories.)
Diagnostic Injection: Ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation is usually done after a diagnostic injection, which gives us an indication of the likely effectiveness of the ablation. A local anesthetic agent (such as lidocaine) is injected using nerve stimulator and ultrasound guidance to increase accuracy. If the trial injection results in a significant decrease in pain, then this indicates that the procedure is likely to be successful.
The Procedure: Radiofrequency ablation is a mostly painless procedure and you are likely to only feel pain when the local anesthetic is injected into the foot. On the day of the procedure, the skin is anesthetized with local anesthetic. After it has taken effect, a very small puncture is made over the painful area. The radiofrequency needle is introduced and an ultrasound is used to guide the positioning of the needle. Once the needle position is rechecked, an electrode is placed through the needle and heated according to protocol. The site is covered with a bandage and patient is advised to reduce activity, ice and elevate the foot for the remainder of the day. The bandage can be removed the following day and patient can cover the area with a regular Band-Aid, keeping the site clean and dry for at least 24 hours. Normal activity can be resumed within one or two days and any pain that occurs is usually managed with an NSAID or Tylenol.
Side effects are not generally seen with this procedure, but a few are a possibility. Infections are rare, as is abscess formation at the puncture site. You may develop bruising that can be painful. Numbness or a lack of feeling in around the incision area can also happen, but this side effect is rare.
Relief: It often takes a 4-6 weeks for the full effect of the procedure. We recommend continued heel pads or arch supports as well as stretching for at least 2 months after the procedure. You should be able to return to sports activities such as jogging after one month. If there is still pain at six weeks, the procedure can be repeated. If none of these procedures affect the pain, it may be time to look at other procedures. However, most patients find that after one or two radiofrequency ablations their Baxter’s entrapment pain has decreased significantly.
Ultrasound Guided Platelet Rich Plasma Injection
Platelet rich plasma (PRP) treatment is the injection of the patient’s own platelets to jumpstart the healing process for soft tissue injuries such as injured tendons, ligaments, muscles, joints and plantar fasciitis.
The use of platelet-rich plasma injections for plantar fasciitis is relatively new. Recent studies have shown platelet-rich plasma injections to be effective in treating plantar fasciitis. Some studies even suggest that these injections should be adopted as the first line of treatment especially with recently developed injection techniques. Platelet activation plays a key role in the process of wound and soft tissue healing, especially when inflammation is present. Platelet-rich plasma injections are prepared by centrifuging the patient’s own blood to create a high concentration of platelets, around 7-10 times the concentration found in regular blood. These concentrated activated platelets are injected into the abnormal tissue, causing a local inflammatory reaction which releases growth factors that stimulate healing , tissue regeneration and accelerate recovery. The activated platelets also:
- Increase local blood flow to assist in correction of a failed healing response
- Induce a breakdown of scar tissue, which may have been produced as a result of a chronic inflammatory response.
The use of ultrasound for the injection of platelet rich plasma increases the precision of injection and the quality of results while decreasing the likelihood of complications. PRP injection therapy is generally completed in just one session, but may require additional injections depending upon the clinical circumstances.
Since the procedure involves utilization of the patient’s own blood, the risk of adverse effects or complications is low. The procedure is generally well tolerated with high patient satisfaction scores and long term pain relief. Some side effects of platelet rich plasma injections are post-injection swelling and localized discomfort that usually goes away in a couple of days. Ice or over-the-counter analgesics (like Acetaminophen (Tylenol) but not NSAIDs) can help reduce discomfort after the procedure. Other less common risks of Platelet Rich Plasma injections include; infection, localized bruising or changes in skin color. PRP is contraindicated in breastfeeding/ pregnant women, individuals with known history of coagulation or bleeding disorders and malignant lesions. NSAIDs such as ibuprofen cannot be used after Platelet Rich Plasma injections since they interfere with the effectiveness of the PRP treatment.
Besides the management of plantar fasciitis, ultrasound guided platelet rich plasma injections can be used for the treatment of several other musculoskeletal conditions, such as tendonitis, sprains or strains to ligaments or articulating surfaces and muscle tears.
Other procedures used to treat chronic Plantar Fasciitis:
What Can We Do?
Don’t Suffer Any More…